Thorsten Gruenheid, DDS, Dr med dent, PhD

Associate Professor, Department of Developmental and Surgical Sciences

Thorsten Gruenheid

Contact Info

Office Phone 612-625-3903

Office Address:
6-324 Moos Tower
515 Delaware St. SE
Minneapolis, MN 55455

DDS, University of Mainz (Dentistry), 1997

Dr. med. dent, University of Mainz (Dentistry), 1998

PhD, University of Amsterdam (Dentistry), 2010

Certificate in Orthodontics, University of Mainz, 2002

Certificate in Orthodontics, University of Minnesota, 2017


Dr. Grünheid received his dental degree and Dr. med. dent. from the University of Mainz. After practicing general dentistry for a year, he then completed a three-year orthodontic residency and, upon graduation as a specialist, joined the faculty in the Department of Orthodontics at the University of Mainz. He completed his PhD and was on faculty at the University of Amsterdam before joining the Division of Orthodontics at the University of Minnesota. Dr. Grünheid has written many scientific articles, contributed book chapters, and has lectured nationally and internationally on a variety of topics in orthodontics and oral biology.


Research Summary/Interests

  • Orthodontic treatment simulation and outcome assessment using digital 3-D technologies
  • Orthodontic bracket bonding
  • Prevention of white spot lesions


  • Gaalaas LR, Gaalaas SA, Grünheid T, Boyer HC, Beyer JP, Larson BE. Survey of recommended referral patterns for incidental sinus and airway findings on CBCT analysis in an orthodontic population. Northwest Dent 2018;March–April:14–21.
  • Grünheid T, Loh C, Larson BE. How accurate is Invisalign in non-extraction cases? Are predicted tooth positions achieved? Angle Orthod 2017;87:809–815. 
  • Goergen MJ, Holton NE, Grünheid T. Morphological interaction between the nasal septum and nasofacial skeleton during human ontogeny. J Anat 2017;230:689–700. 
  • Grünheid T, Larson CE, Larson BE. Midpalatal suture density ratio: a novel predictor of skeletal response to rapid maxillary expansion. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2017;151:267–276. 
  • Grünheid T, Kirk DC, Larson BE. The effect of root and bone visualization on perceptions of the quality of orthodontic treatment simulations. Angle Orthod 2017;87:384–390. 
  • Grünheid T, Lee MS, Larson BE. Transfer accuracy of vinyl polysiloxane trays for indirect bonding. Angle Orthod 2016;86:468–474. 
  • Grünheid T, Gaalaas S, Hamdan HA, Larson BE. Effect of clear aligner therapy on the buccolingual inclination of mandibular canines and the intercanine distance. Angle Orthod 2016;86:10–16. 
  • Grünheid T, Sudit GN, Larson BE. Debonding and adhesive remnant cleanup: an in vitro comparison of bond quality, adhesive remnant cleanup, and orthodontic acceptance of a flash-free product. Eur J Orthod 2015;37:497–502. 
  • Hamdan HA, Grünheid T, Larson BE. Effect of orthodontic treatment with preadjusted edgewise appliances on the buccolingual inclination of mandibular canines: a CBCT study. Orthod Craniofac Res 2015;18:156–164. 
  • Grünheid T, McCarthy SD, Larson BE. Clinical use of a direct chairside oral scanner: an assessment of accuracy, time, and patient acceptance. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2014;146:673–682. 
  • Grünheid T, Larson BE. Repeated bracket bonding: conventional or self-etching primers? JWFO 2014;3:102–105. 
  • Grünheid T, Patel N, De Felippe NL, Wey A, Gaillard PR, Larson BE. Accuracy, reproducibility, and time efficiency of dental measurements using different technologies. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2014;145:157–164. 
  • Larson BE, Vaubel CJ, Grünheid T. Effectiveness of computer-assisted orthodontic treatment technology to achieve predicted outcomes. Angle Orthod 2013;83:557–562. 
  • Grünheid T, Hollevoet DA, Miller JR, Larson BE. Visual scan behavior of new and experienced clinicians assessing panoramic radiographs. JWFO 2013;2:e3–e7. 
  • Grünheid T, Kolbeck Schieck JR, Pliska BT, Ahmad M, Larson BE. Dosimetry of a cone-beam computed tomography machine as compared to a digital X-ray machine in orthodontic imaging. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2012;141:436–443. 
  • Grünheid T, Langenbach GEJ, Brugman P, Everts V, Zentner A. The masticatory system under varying functional load. Part 2: Effect of reduced masticatory load on the degree and distribution of mineralization in the rabbit mandible. Eur J Orthod 2011;33:365–371. 
  • Vreeke M, Langenbach GEJ, Korfage JAM, Zentner A, Grünheid T. The masticatory system under varying functional load. Part 1: Structural adaptation of rabbit jaw muscles to reduced masticatory load. Eur J Orthod 2011;33:359–364. 
  • Willems NMBK, Mulder L, Bank RA, Grünheid T, den Toonder JMJ, Zentner A, Langenbach GEJ. Determination of the relationship between collagen cross-links and the bone-tissue stiffness in the porcine mandibular condyle. J Biomech 2011;44:1132–1136.
  • Grünheid T, Brugman P, Zentner A, Langenbach GEJ. Changes in rabbit jaw muscle activity parameters in response to reduced masticatory load. J Exp Biol 2010;213:775–781. 
  • Willems NMBK, Langenbach GEJ, Everts V, Mulder L, Grünheid T, Bank RA, Zentner A, van Eijden TMGJ. Age-related changes in collagen properties and mineralization in cancellous and cortical bone in the porcine mandibular condyle. Calcif Tissue Int 2010;86:307–312.
  • Grünheid T, Langenbach GEJ, Korfage JAM, Zentner A, van Eijden TMGJ. The adaptive response of jaw muscles to varying functional demands. Eur J Orthod 2009;31:596–612. 
  • Willems NMBK, Mulder L, Langenbach GEJ, Grünheid T, Zentner A, van Eijden TMGJ. Age-related changes in microarchitecture and mineralization of cancellous bone in the porcine mandibular condyle. J Structural Biol 2007;158:421?427. 
  • Grünheid T, Morbach BA, Zentner A. Pulpal cellular reactions to experimental tooth movement in rats. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2007;104:434?441. 
  • Grünheid T, Langenbach GEJ, Zentner A, van Eijden TMGJ. Duty time of rabbit jaw muscles varies with the number of activity bursts. J Dent Res 2006;85:1112?1117. 
  • Grünheid T, Langenbach GEJ, Zentner A, van Eijden TMGJ. Circadian variation and intermuscular correlation of rabbit jaw muscle activity. Brain Res 2005;1062:151?160. 
  • Gabriel MO, Grünheid T, Zentner A. Glycosylation pattern and cell attachment-inhibiting property of human salivary mucins. J Periodontol 2005;76:1175?1181. 
  • Grünheid T, Zentner A, Heaney TG. Cell kinetics of mechanically stimulated rat oral epithelia. Arch Oral Biol 2005;50:829?835.
  • Grünheid T, Zentner A. Extracellular matrix synthesis, proliferation and death in mechanically stimulated human gingival fibroblasts in vitro. Clin Oral Investig 2005;9:124?130.


Board Certifications

Diplomate, American Board of Orthodontics

Clinical Interests

Dr. Grünheid practices full scope orthodontics in the University of Minnesota Orthodontic Faculty Practice. The Faculty Practice is a specialty clinic staffed by current School of Dentistry faculty and operates like orthodontic offices outside the School of Dentistry. Dr. Grünheid has served as the Director of the Orthodontic Faculty Practice since 2012.